For researchers

PMHP research

Prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety symptoms and associations with child mental health outcomes in rural Nepal (2023)
A Dielemans, P Mahat, JA Dunn, E Balcke, RK Jha, S Ghimire, H Gaire, S Honikman, Trop Med Int Health

Adapting brief problem-solving therapy for pregnant women experiencing depressive symptoms and intimate partner violence in rural Ethiopia  (2023)
R Keynejad, T Bitew, K Sorsdahl, B Myers, S Honikman, A Mulushoa, M Demissie, N Deyessa, L Howard and C Hanlon, Scientific Reports, 13

Facilitators and barriers to detection and treatment of depression, anxiety and experiences of domestic violence in pregnant women (2023)
Z Abrahams, S Boisits, M Schneider, S Honikman and C Lund, Scientific Reports, 13

Gender (in)equity in global mental health research: A call to action (2023)
K Rose-Clarke and The Women in Global Mental Health Research Group, Transcultural Psychiatry

Costs of common perinatal mental health problems in South Africa (2022)
A Bauer, E Garman, D Besada, S Field, M Knapp, S Honikman, Global Mental Health, 1-10

A mixed-methods feasibility study of Nyamekela4Care: An intervention to support improved quality of care among service providers in low-resource settings (2022)
S Rabie, CA Laurenzi, S Field, S Skeen, S Honikman, Social Science and Medicine Mental Health, 2
DOI: 10.1016/j.ssmmh.2022.100154

Adapting an intervention of brief problem-solving therapy to improve the health of women with antenatal depressive symptoms in primary healthcare in rural Ethiopia (2022)
T Bitew, R Keynejad, B Myers, S Honikman, K Sorsdahl, C Hanlon, Pilot Feasibility Stud 8, 202
DOI: 10.1186/s40814-022-01166-1

Health systems strengthening interventions for perinatal common mental disorders and experiences of domestic violence in Cape Town, South Africa: protocol for a pilot implementation study (2022)
Z Abrahams, M Schneider, S Honikman, P Olckers, S Boisits, N Seward, C Lund, Pilot Feasibility Stud 8100
DOI: 10.1186/s40814-022-01053-9

Comment: silent burden no more: a global call to action to prioritize perinatal mental health (2022)
S McNab, J Fisher, S Honikman, L Muvhu, R Levine, G Chorwe‑Sungani, S Bar‑Zeev, T D Hailegebriel, I Yusuf, N Chowdhary, A Rahman, P Bolton, C‑H Mershon, M Bormet, D Henry‑Ernest, A Portela, S Stalls, BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 22:308
DOI: 10.1186/s12884-022-04645-8

Group problem solving therapy for perinatal depression in primary health care settings in rural Uganda: an intervention cohort study (2021)
J E M Nakku, O Nalwadda, E Garman, S Honikman, C Hanlon, F Kigozi, C Lund, BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 21:584
DOI: 10.1186/s12884-021-04043-6

Developing a task-sharing psychological intervention to treat mild to moderate symptoms of perinatal depression and anxiety in South Africa: a mixed-method formative study (2021)
S Boisits, Z Abrahams, M Schneider, S Honikman, D Kaminer and C Lund, Int J Ment Health Syst15, 23
DOI: 10.1186/s13033-021-00443-5

Brief problem-solving therapy for antenatal depressive symptoms in primary care in rural Ethiopia: protocol for a randomised, controlled feasibility trial (2021)
T Bitew, R. Keynejad, B Myers, S Honikman, G Medhin, F Girma, L Howard, K Sorsdahl and C Hanlon, Pilot Feasibility Stud 7, 35
DOI: 10.1186/s40814-021-00773-8

Perinatal depression and anxiety in resource-constrained settings: interventions and health systems strengthening (2020)
S Honikman, S Sigwebela, M Schneider, S Field, Chapter in South African Health Review 2020
ISBN 978-1-928479-06-2

Perinatal mental health around the world: priorities for research and service development in Africa (2020)
M Ng’oma, T Bitew, M Kaiyo-Utete, C Hanlon, S Honikman and R C Stewart, BJPsych International
DOI: 10.1192/bji.2020.16

Stakeholder perspectives on antenatal depression and the potential for psychological intervention in rural Ethiopia: a qualitative study (2020)
T Bitew, R Keynejad, S Honikman, K Sorsdahl, B Myers, A Fekadu, C Hanlon, BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
DOI: 10.1186/s12884-020-03069-6

Problem solving therapy (PST) tailored for intimate partner violence (IPV) versus standard PST and enhanced usual care for pregnant women experiencing IPV in rural Ethiopia: protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility trial (2020)
R Keynejad, T Bitew, K Sorsdahl, B Myers, S Honikman, G Medhin, N Deyessa, N Sevdalis, W Tol, L Howard, C Hanlon, Trials, 21, Article number: 454
DOI: 10.1186/s13063-020-04331-0

Adolescent mothers: A qualitative study on barriers and facilitators to mental health in a low-resource setting in Cape Town, South Africa (2020) 
S Field, Z Abrahams, S Honikman, African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine, Vol 12, No 1, a2279
DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v12i1.2279

Food Insecurity, Maternal Mental Health, and Domestic Violence: A Call for a Syndemic Approach to Research and Interventions (2020) 
C Laurenzi, S Field, S Honikman, Maternal and Child Health Journal

Task-sharing of psychological treatment for antenatal depression in Khayelitsha, South Africa: Effects on antenatal and postnatal outcomes in an individual randomised controlled trial (2019)
C Lund, M Schneider, E C. Garman, T Davies, M Munodawafa, S Honikman, A Bhana, J Bass, P Bolton, M Dewey, J Joska, A Kagee, L Myer, I Petersen, M Prince, D J. Stein, H Tabana et al., Behaviour Research and Therapy

Maternal Mental Health in South Africa and the Opportunity for Integration (2019)
S Honikman, S Field, chapter in: Fritzsche K., McDaniel S., Wirsching M. (eds) Psychosomatic Medicine. Springer, Cham 

Validation of a brief mental health screening tool for pregnant women in a low socio-economic setting (2019)
Z Abrahams, M Schneider, S Field, S Honikman, BMC Psychol 777 (2019)

Maternal, child and adolescent mental health: An ecological life course perspective (2019)
X Hunt, S Skeen, S Honikman, J Bantjes, K Matlwa Mabaso, S Docrat, M Tomlinson, Child Gauge 2019
ISBN: 978-0-620-85838-0

The development of an ultra-short, maternal mental health screening tool in South Africa (2019)
T v Heyningen, L Myer, M Tomlinson, S Field, S Honikman, Global Mental Health
DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2019.21

The Secret History method and the development of an ethos of care: Preparing the maternity environment for integrating mental health care in South Africa (2019)
S Honikman, S Field, S Cooper, Transcultural Psychiatry
DOI: 10.1177/1363461519844640

Accessible continued professional development for maternal mental health (2019)
S Field, A Abrahams, D L Woods, R Turner, M N Onah, D K Kaura, S Honikman, African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine, 11(1), a1902 
DOI: 10.4102/phcfm. v11i1.1902

Characteristics of perinatal depression in rural central, India: a cross‑sectional study (2018)
S. D. Rathod, S Honikman, C Hanlon, R Shidhaye, International Journal of Mental Health Systems
DOI: 10.1186/s13033-018-0248-5
Weblink | PDF

Domestic and intimate partner violence among pregnant women in a low resource setting in South Africa: a facility-based, mixed methods study (2018)
S Field, M Onah, T v Heyningen, S Honikman, BMC Women’s Health
DOI: 10.1186/s12905-018-0612-2
Weblink | PDF

Partnerships in a Global Mental Health Research Programme—the Example of PRIME (2018)
E Breuer, C Hanlon, A Bhana, D Chisholm, M De Silva, A Fekadu, S Honikman, M Jordans, T Kathree, F Kigozi, N P Luitel, M Marx, G Medhin, V Murhar, S Ndyanabangi, V Patel, I Petersen, M Prince, S Raja, S D Rathod, R Shidhaye, J Ssebunnya, G Thornicroft, M Tomlinson, T Wolde-Giorgis, C Lund, Glob Social Welfare
DOI: 10.1007/s40609-018-0128-6

Intercultural Adaptation of the “Secret History” Training: From South Africa to Germany (2018)
E Hänselmann, C Knapp, M Wirsching, S Honikman, Global Health Collaboration, Chapter 4
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-77685-9
Weblink | PDF

Adapting a perinatal empathic training method from South Africa to Germany From South Africa to Germany (2018)
C Knapp,  S Honikman, M Wirsching, G Husni-Pascha, E Hänselmann, Pilot and Feasibility Studies
DOI: 10.1186/s40814-018-0292-6
Weblink | PDF

Comparison of mental health screening tools for detecting antenatal depression and anxiety disorders in South African women (2018)
T v Heyningen, S Honikman, M Tomlinson, S Field, L Myer, PLoS ONE 13(4): e0193697,
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193697
Weblink | PDF

Postpartum psychiatric disorders (2018)
S Meltzer-Brody, L M Howard, V Bergink, S Vigod, I Jones, T Munk-Olsen, S Honikman, J Milgrom, Nature Reviews Disease Primers
DOI: 10.1038/nrdp.2018.22

Factors associated with household food insecurity and depression in pregnant South African women from a low socio-economic setting: a cross-sectional study (2018)
Z Abrahams, C Lund, S Field, S Honikman, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
DOI: 10.1007/s00127-018-1497-y
Weblink | PDF

Prevalence and predictors of anxiety disorders amongst low-income pregnant women in urban South Africa: a cross-sectional study (2017)
T v Heyningen, S Honikman, L Myer, M N Onah, S Field, M Tomlinson, Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 
DOI: 10.1007/s00737-017-0768-z

Antenatal depressive symptoms and perinatal complications: a prospective study in rural Ethiopia (2017)
T Bitew, C Hanlon, E Kebede, S Honikman, A Fekuda, BMC Psychiatry (2017) 17:301,
DOI: 10.1186/s12888-017-1462-4
Weblink | PDF

‘First 1000 days’ health interventions in low- and middle-income countries: alignment of South African policies with high-quality evidence (2017)
R English, N Peer, S Honikman, A Tugendhaft, K J Hofman, Global Health Action, 10:1, 1340396,
DOI: 10.1080/16549716.2017.1340396
Weblink | PDF

Antenatal depressive symptoms and utilisation of delivery and postnatal care: a prospective study in rural Ethiopia (2017)
T Bitew, C HanlonE Kebede, S Honikman, M N Onah, A Fekadu, BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth BMC series
DOI: 10.1186/s12884-017-1383-8
Weblink | PDF

Synthesising Global and Local Knowledge for the Development of Maternal Mental Health Care: Two Cases from South Africa (2017)
S Cooper, S Honikman, I Meintjes, M Tomlinson, The Palgrave Handbook of Sociocultural Perspectives on Global Mental Health, Chapter 23

Perinatal suicidal ideation and behaviour: psychiatry and adversity (2016)
M N Onah, S Field, J Bantjes, S Honikman, Archives of Women’s Mental Health; DOI: 10.1007/s00737-016-0706-5
Weblink | PDF

Maternal mental health and the first 1 000 days (2016)
R E  Turner, S Honikman, South African Medical Journal;106(12):1164-1167. DOI:10.7196/SAMJ.2016.v106.i12.12129
Weblink | PDF

Perinatal mental health care in a rural African district, Uganda: a qualitative study of barriers, facilitators and needs (2016)
J E M Nakku, E S Okello, D Kizza, S Honikman, J Ssebunnya, S Ndyanabangi, C Hanlon, F Kigozi, BMC Health Service Research, DOI 10.1186/s12913-016-1547-7
Weblink | PDF

Antenatal depression and adversity in urban South Africa (2016)
T v Heyningen, L Myer, M N Onah, M Tomlinson, S FieldS Honikman, Journal of Affective Disorders, DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2016.05.052

Predictors of alcohol and other drug use among pregnant women in a peri-urban South African setting (2016)
M N Onah, S FieldT v Heyningen, S Honikman, International Journal of Mental Health SystemsDOI: 10.1186/s13033-016-0070-x
Weblink | PDF

Integrating mental health into South Africa’ s health system : current status and way forward (2016)
M Schneider, E C Baron, E Breuer, SDocrat, S Honikman, A Kagee, M N Onah, S Skeen, K Sorsdahl, M Tomlinson, C vd Westhuizen, C Lund, South African Health Review, 2016, Chapter 13, Durban: Health Systems Trust
Weblink | PDF

Breastfeeding in South Africa : are we making progress? (2016)
Lisanne du Plessis, Nazia Peer, Simone Honikman, René English, South African Health Review, 2016, Chapter 10, Durban: Health Systems Trust
Weblink | PDF

Maternal mental health in primary care in five low- and middle-income countries: a situational analysis (2016)
E C Baron, C Hanlon, S Mall, S Honikman, E Breuer1, T Kathree, N P Luitel, J Nakku, C Lund, G Medhin, V Patel, I Petersen, S Shrivastava, M Tomlinson, Health Services Research, 2016, DOI 10.1186/s12913-016-1291-z
Weblink | PDF

District mental healthcare plans for five low-and middle-income countries: commonalities, variations and evidence gaps (2015)
C Hanlon, A Fekadu, M Jordans, F Kigozi, I Petersen, R Shidhaye, S Honikman, C Lund, M Prince, S Raja, G Thornicroft, M Tomlinson, V Patel, British Journal of Psychiatry, 2015 Oct 7. pii: bjp.bp.114.153767.
Weblink | PDF

Generating evidence to narrow the treatment gap for mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa: Rationale, Overview and Methods of AFFIRM (2015)
C Lund, A Alem, M Schneider, C Hanlon, J Ahrens, C  Bandawe, J Bass, A Bhana, J Burns, D Chibanda, F Cowan, T Davies, M Dewey, A Fekadu, M Freeman, S Honikman, J Joska, A Kagee, R Mayston, G Medhin, S Musisi, L Myer, T Ntulo, M Nyatsanza, A Ofori-Atta, I Petersen, S Phakathi, M Prince, T Shibre, D.J.  Stein, L Swartz, G Thornicroft, M Tomlinson, L Wissow, E Susser, Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences. April 2015 DOI:10.1017/S2045796015000281
Weblink | PDF

Creating capabilities through maternal mental health Interventions: a case study at Hanover Park, Cape Town (2015)
I Meintjes, S Field, T Van Heyningen, S Honikman, Journal of International Development, 27, 234250 DOI: 10.1002/jid.3063

Abuse in South African maternity settings is a disgrace: Potential solutions to the problem (Editorial) (2015)
S Honikman, S Fawcus, I Meintjes, The South African Medical Journal, April, Vol. 105, No. 4, 284 – 286.
Weblink | PDF

Patterns of use of a maternal mental health service in a low-resource antenatal setting in South Africa (2014)
E Baron, S Field, Z Kafaar, S Honikman, Health and Social Care in the Community Journal doi: 10.1111/hsc.12167.

The impact of antenatal mental distress on funtioning and capabilities: views of health care providers and service user in Cape Town, South Africa (2014)
S Mall, S Honikman, B Evans, L Swartz, and C Lund, Informa Healthcare Disability and Rehabilitation: Vol. 36, No. 13, 1092-1099, doi:10.3109/09638288.2013.833300.

Maternal mental health care: refining the components in a South African setting in Global Mental Health (2014)
S Field, E Baron, I Meintjes, T van Heyningen, S Honikman, in Essentials of Global Mental Health, Cambridge University Press, 173-186.

Screening and pathways to maternal mental health care in a South African antenatal setting (2013)
B Vythilingum, S Field, Z Kafaar, E Baron, DJ Stein, S Honikman, Archives of Women’s Mental Health, April, 1-9. doi: 10.1007/s00737-013-0343-1.

Stepped Care for Maternal Mental Health: A Case Study of the Perinatal Mental Health Project in South Africa (2012)
S Honikman, T van Heyningen, S Field, E Baron, M Tomlinson, PLoS Medicine, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001222.
Weblink | PDF

Improving child outcomes through maternal mental health interventions (2010)
I Meintjes; S Field, L Sanders, T Van Heyningen, S Honikman, Journal of Child & Adolescent Mental Health, Vol. 22, No. 2, 73 – 82.

The Perinatal Mental Health Project (2004)
S Honikman, H Rosenthal, S Faure, B Wirz, S van Zijl, M Littlejohn, N Bergman, S Fawcus, Mental Health Promotion: Case Studies from Countries, WHO/WFMH, (Eds. S Saxena & PJ Garrison), 84.

Maternal Mental Health: South Africa & low and middle-income countries

Prioritizing perinatal mental health in South Africa: development of a cinematic training package for maternity care workers in low-resource settings. (2022)
Smith, L, OpenBU 

The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of integrating mental health services in primary care in low- and middle-income countries: Systematic review. (2021)
Cubillos, L., Bartels, S., Torrey, W., Naslund, J., Uribe-Restrepo, J., Gaviola, C., […] Marsch, L., BJPsych Bulletin 45(1), 40-52 DOI: 10.1192/bjb.2020.35 

The Changing Aspects of Motherhood in Face of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (2021)
Kingsley, J.P., Vijay, P.K., Kumaresan, J. et al., Matern Child Health J 25, 15–21
DOI: 10.1007/s10995-020-03044-9

A Right-to-Health Lens on Perinatal Mental Health Care in South Africa (2020)
S. Brown, G. MacNaughton, C. Sprague, Health and Human Rights Journal 
Weblink | PDF

Epidemiology of antenatal depression in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis (2020)
Dadi, A.F., Wolde, H.F., Baraki, A.G. et al., BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 20251. DOI: 10.1186/s12884-020-02929-5

Epidemiology of postnatal depression and its associated factors in Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis (2020)
Dadi AF, Akalu TY, Baraki AG, Wolde HF, PLoS ONE 15(4):e0231940. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0231940

Prioritising Women’s Mental Health for the Achievement of the SDGs in Africa (2020)
M F Spedding, A Ofori-Atta, D J Stein, K R Sorsdahl, C Lund, in: Ramutsindela M., Mickler D. (eds) Africa and the Sustainable Development Goals. Sustainable Development Goals Series. Springer, Cham

Pregnant women’s mental health literacy and perceptions of perinatal mental disorders in the Western Cape, South Africa (2018)
M F Spedding, D J Stein, T Naledi, K Sorsdahl, Mental Health & Prevention, Volume 11   

Psychological Treatments for the World: Lessons from Low- and Middle-Income Countries (2017) 
D R Singla, B A Kohrt, L K Murray, A Anand, B F Chorpita, V Patel, Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 13:1, 149-181  

“The sun has set even though it is morning”: Experiences and explanations of perinatal depression in an urban township, Cape Town (2016)
T Davies, M Schneider, M Nyatsanza, C Lund, Transcultural Psychiatry 2016, Vol. 53(3) 286–312

Maternal depression and mental health in early childhood: an examination of underlying mechanisms in low-income and middle-income countries (2016)
C M Herba, V Glover, P G Ramchandani, M B Rondon, Lancet Psychiatry, 2016; Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2016, Pages 983-992,

Epidemiology of maternal depression, risk factors, and child outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries (2016)
B Gelaye, MB Rondon, R Araya, MA Williams, Lancet Psychiatry, 2016 Oct; 3(10):973-982. DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30284-X. Epub 2016 Sep 17

Prevalence and determinants of common perinatal mental disorders in women in low- and lower-middle-income countries: a systematic review (2012)
J Fisher, M Mello, V Patel, A Rahman, T Tran, S Holton, W Holmes, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol 90, No 2, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862012000200014

PRIME: A Programme to Reduce the Treatment Gap for Mental Disorders in Five Low- and Middle-Income Countries (2012) 
C Lund, M Tomlinson, M De Silva, A Fekadu, R Shidhaye, M Jordans, I Petersen, A Bhana, F Kigozi, M Prince, G Thornicroft, C Hanlon, R Kakuma, D McDaid, S Saxena, D Chisholm, S Raja, S Kippen-Wood, S Honikman, L Fairall, V Patel, PLoS Med. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001359

The prevalence and clinical presentation of antenatal depression in rural South Africa (2011)
T. J Rochat, M Tomlinson, T Bärnighausen, M-L Newell, A Stein, Journal of Affective Disorders, doi:10.1016/j.jad.2011.08.011

Depressed mood in pregnancy: Prevalence and correlates in two Cape Town peri-urban settlements (2011)
M Hartley, M Tomlinson, E Greco, W S Comulada, J Stewart, I le Roux, N Mbewu, et al. Reproductive Health, doi:10.1186/1742-4755-8-9

The South African Stress and Health (SASH) study: A scientific base for mental health policy (2009)
DJ Stein, DR Williams, RC Kessler, South African Medical Journal, 99(5), 337-337

The South African Stress and Health (SASH) study: 12-month and lifetime prevalence of common mental disorders (2009)
A A Herman, D J Stein, S Seedat, S G Heeringa, H Moomal, D R Williams, SAMJ: South African Medical Journal. Vol 99, No 5, 339-344

The epidemiology of major depression in South Africa: results from the South African stress and health study (2009)
M Tomlinson, A Grimsrud, DJ Stein, D Williams, L Myer, South African Medical Journal, 99(5), 368-373

Life stress and mental disorders in the South African Stress and Health study (2009)
S Seedat, DJ Stein, PB Jackson, S Heeringa, D Williams, L Myer, South African Medical Journal. 99(5): 375-382

Global maternal mental health research

In search of ‘community’: a critical review of community mental health services for women in African settings (2021)
Lauren Elias, Aneeha Singh, Rochelle A Burgess, Health Policy and Planning, Volume 36, Issue 2, March 2021, Pages 205–217,
DOI: 10.1093/heapol/czaa140

A validation of the Postpartum Specific Anxiety Scale 12-item research short-form for use during global crises with five translations. (2021)
Silverio, S.A., Davies, S.M., Christiansen, P. et al., BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 21, 112
DOI: 10.1186/s12884-021-03597-9

Childcare Instability and Maternal Depressive Symptoms: Exploring New Avenues for Supporting Maternal Mental Health (2018)
D. Johnson C. M.Padilla, Academic Pediatrics Volume 19, Issue 1, January–February 2019, Pages 18-26
DOI: 10.1016/j.acap.2018.05.006

The Lancet Series on Women’s Mental Health
2017 Series

The Lancet Series on Perinatal Mental Health
2014 Series

Grand Challenges: Integrating Maternal Mental Health into Maternal and Child Health Programmes (2013)
A Rahman, PJ Surkan, CE Cayetano, P Rwagatare, KE Dickson, PLoS Med. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001442

Global mental health research

COVID-19 mental health impact and responses in low-income and middle-income countries: reimagining global mental health (2021)
L. Kola, B. A. Kohrt, C. Hanlon, J. A. Naslund, S. Sikander et al., The Lancet Psychiatry, Volume 8, Issue 6, P535-550, June 01, 2021
DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(21)00025-0

Shared goals for mental health research: what, why and when for the 2020s (2021)
Til Wykes, Andy Bell, Sarah Carr, Tina Coldham, Simon Gilbody, et al, Journal of Mental Health
DOI: 10.1080/09638237.2021.1898552

Global Mental Health: Interdisciplinary challenges for a field in motion (2020)
D Bemme, L J Kirmayer, Transcultural Psychiatry57(1), 3–18.
DOI: 10.1177/1363461519898035

Addressing anxiety and depression – A whole system approach (2018)
S Souraya, T Canning, P Farmer, Report of the WISH Anxiety and Depression Forum 2018, Doha, Qatar: World Innovation Summit for Health
ISBN: 978-1-912865-00-0

The Lancet Commission on Global Mental Health and Sustainable Development
Journal article | The Commission

The Lancet Series on Global Mental Health
2011 Series 2

The Lancet Series on Global Mental Health
2007 Series 1

Prevalence studies

Associations between caregiver mental health and young children’s behaviour in a rural Kenyan sample (2021)
Christina A. Laurenzi, Xanthe Hunt, Sarah Skeen, Phillip Sundin, Robert E. Weiss, Victor Kosi, Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus & Mark Tomlinson, Global Health Action, 14:1
DOI: 10.1080/16549716.2020.1861909

  • Anxiety

Prevalence and determinants of common perinatal mental disorders in women in low and lower middle income countries: a systematic review of the evidence (2012) 
J Fisher, M Cabral de Mello, V Patel, A Rahman, T Tran, S Holton, W Holmes, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Feb 2012, Vol. 90 Issue 2, p139.

The prevalence of antenatal and postnatal co-morbid anxiety and depression: a meta-analysis (2017)
K Falah-Hassani, R Shiri, C L Dennis, Journal of Psychological Medicine

  • Depression

A systematic review of the association between perinatal depression and cognitive development in infancy in low and middle-income countries (2021)
Matthew Bluett-Duncan, M. Thomas Kishore, Divya M. Patil, Veena A. Satyanarayana, Helen Sharp, PLOS One
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0253790

A systematic review and meta-regression of the prevalence and incidence of perinatal depression (2017)
A. Woody, A. J. Ferrari, D. J. Siskind et al, Journal of Affective Disorders
doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.05.003.

Antenatal depression and its risk factors: An urban prevalence study in KwaZulu-Natal (2012) 
L Manikkam, J K Burns, South African Medical Journal Oct 10;102(12):940-4. doi: 10.7196/samj.6009.

The prevalence and clinical presentation of antenatal depression in rural South Africa (2011) 
T Jean Rochat, M Tomlinson, T Bärnighausen, M LNewell, A Stein, Journal of Affective Disorders, Dec;135(1-3):362-73. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.08.011. Epub 2011 Aug 31.

Depressed mood in pregnancy: Prevalence and correlates in two Cape Town peri-urban settlements (2011) M Hartley, M Tomlinson, E Greco,W S Comulada, J Stewart, I le Roux, N Mbewu, M J Rotheram-Borus, Reproductive Health, 8:9,DOI: 10.1186/1742-4755-8-9. Weblink

Post-partum depression and infant growth in a South African peri-urban settlement (2006) M Tomlinson, P J Cooper, A Stein, L Swartz, C Molteno, Child: Care, Health & Development, Jan;32(1):81-6. Weblink

  • Suicidality

Substance using Mothers Experiencing Suicidal Thoughts: Impact of Parenting Behaviors on Child Behavior Problems (2018)
B Brakenhoff, Q Wu, N Slesnick, Journal of Child and Family Studies

Detection and screening

Protocol for assessing feasibility, acceptability and fidelity of screening for antenatal depression (FAFSAD) by midwives in Blantyre District, Malawi (2021)
Genesis Chorwe-Sungani, Modesta Mwagomba, Kazione Kulisewa, Ellen Chirwa, Diana Jere & Jennifer Chipps, Pilot and Feasibility Studies volume 7, Article number: 32
DOI: 10.1186/s40814-021-00775-6

Association between antenatal screening for depressive symptoms and postpartum psychiatric admissions (2021)
Macarena A. San Martin Porter, Steve Kisely, Kim S. Betts, Caroline Salom, Rosa Alati, Journal of Psychiatric Research, Volume 133, Pages 46-51,
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.12.008

Perinatal mental health and psychosocial risk screening in a community maternal and child health setting: evaluation of a digital platform (2018)
N Highet, J Gamble, D Creedy, Journal of Primary Health Care Research & Development

Neonatal Outcomes in Women With Untreated Antenatal Depression Compared With Women Without Depression (2016) 
A Jarde, M Morais, D Kingston, R Giallo, G. M. MacQueen, L Giglia, J Beyene, Y Wang, S D. McDonald JAMA Psychiatry 2016;73(8):826-837. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.0934

Primary Care Screening for and Treatment of Depression in Pregnant and Postpartum Women (2016) 
E O’Connor, R. C. Rossom, M Henninger, H. C. Groom, B. U. Burda JAMA. 2016;315(4):388-406. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.18948

To screen or not to screen-that is the question in perinatal depression (2002)
A Buist, B Barnett, J Milgrom, S Pope, J Condon, D Ellwood, P Boyce, et al, The Medical Journal of Australia. 177 Suppl (October): S101–5

Risk factors for maternal mental health problems

Cumulative risk factors and mental health of mothers of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (2021)
Mónica Vizcarrondo-Oppenheimer, Cynthia García-Coll, José Martínez-González, Zayhara Reyes-Bou, Lourdes García-Fragoso et al, The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 34:4, 660-662,
DOI: 10.1080/14767058.2019.1610732

Risk factors for depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms in perinatal women during the COVID-19 Pandemic (2021)
Cindy H. Liu, Carmina Erdei, Leena Mittal, Psychiatry Research, Volume 295
DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113552

  • Food insecurity 

Food-insecure pregnant women in South Africa: a cross-sectional exploration of maternal depression as a mediator of violence and trauma risk factors (2019)
W Barnett, J Pellowski, C Kuo, N Koen, K A Donald, H J Zar, D J Stein, Weblink

The Impact of Food Insecurity on the Home Emotional Environment Among Low-Income Mothers of Young Children (2018)
M Gill, M Koleilat, S. E. Whaley, Maternal and Child Health Journal, 22: 1146., doi:

Cumulative risk and resilience: The roles of comorbid maternal mental health conditions and community cohesion in influencing food security in low-income households (2017)
M Lombe, L. Y. Saltzman, Y Chu, A Sinha, V E Nebbitt, Social Work in Mental Health Journal, doi:

  • Gender-based violence and intimate partner violence

Psychological and physical intimate partner violence and young children’s mental health: The role of maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms and parenting behaviors. (2018)
C A Greene, G Chan, KJ McCarthy, LS Wakschlag, MJ Briggs-Gowan, J Child Abuse Negl.
doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.01.012.

The Association of Maternal Exposure to Domestic Violence During Childhood with Prenatal Attachment (2018)
A Sancho-Rossignol, Z Schilliger, M Cordero, S Rusconi Serpa, M Epiney, P Hüppi, F Ansermet, D Schechter, Frontiers in Psychiatry

Violence against women and mental health (2016) 
S Oram, H Khalifeh, L M Howard The Lancet Psychiatry doi:

The Lancet Series on Violence against women and girls
2014 Series

  • Refugees and civil conflict 

Maternal mental health priorities, help-seeking behaviors, and resources in post-conflict settings: a qualitative study in eastern Uganda (2018)
W A Tol, B Ebrecht, R Aiyo, S M Murray, A J Nguyen, B A Kohrt, S Ndyanabangi, S Alderman, S Musisi, J Nakku, BMC Psychiatry


Prevalence and predictors of postpartum depression by HIV status and timing of HIV diagnosis in Gauteng, South Africa (2019)
Idah Mokhele, Cornelius Nattey, Nelly Jinga, Constance Mongwenyana, Matthew P. Fox, Dorina Onoya, PLoS ONE

Impact of HIV-status disclosure on HIV viral load in pregnant and postpartum women on antiretroviral therapy (2019)
K Brittain, CA Mellins, RH Remien, Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000002036

Determinants of suboptimal adherence and elevated HIV viral load in pregnant women already on antiretroviral therapy when entering antenatal care in Cape Town (2018)
K Brittain, RH Remien, CA Mellins, TK Phillips, A Zerbe, Journal of AIDS Care

HIV-status disclosure and depression in the context of unintended pregnancy among South African women (2018)
K Brittain, CA Mellins, RH Remien, T Phillips, Journal of Global Public Health


Postpartum maternal mental health is associated with cognitive development of HIV-exposed infants in Zimbabwe: a cross-sectional study (2018)
H Mebrahtu, V Simms, R Chingono, Z Mupambireyi, H. A. Weiss, P Ndlovu, R Malaba, F. M. Cowan, L Sherr, Journal of AIDS Care

  • Poverty 

Material Hardship and Mental Health Symptoms Among a Predominantly Low Income Sample of Pregnant Women Seeking Prenatal Care (2018)
J Katz, H.F. Crean, C Cerulli et al., Maternal and Child Health Journal

  • Social support

Social support and maternal mental health at 4 months and 1 year postpartum: analysis from the All Our Families cohort (2018) E Hetherington, S McDonald, T Williamson, S B Patten, S C Tough, Journal of Epidemiol Community Health 2018;72:933-939. 
DOI: 10.1136/jech-2017-210274

Maternal adverse childhood experiences and antepartum risks: the moderating role of social support (2018)
N Racine, S Madigan, A Plamondon, E Hetherington, S McDonald, S Tough, Archives of Women’s Mental Health 

  • Substance and alcohol abuse

Substance using Mothers Experiencing Suicidal Thoughts: Impact of Parenting Behaviors on Child Behavior Problems (2018)
B Brakenhoff, Q Wu, N Slesnick, Journal of Child and Family Studies


Did perceived parenting in adolescence change as a result of the COVID-19 lockdown? A natural experiment (2021)
Bacikova-Sleskova, M., Barbierik, L., Janovská, A., Kalina, O., & Orosová, O., APA PsycNet Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice
DOI: 10.1037/cfp0000167

Teenage Pregnancy and Its Associated Factors in Eastern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study (2021)
Mezmur H, Assefa N, Alemayehu T., Int J Womens Health. 2021;13:267-278
DOI: 10.2147/IJWH.S287715

Promotion of Mental Health among Perinatal Mexican-American Adolescents through Health Literacy (2018)
P Recto, J Dimmitt-Champion, Journal of Adolescent Health
DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.11.121

Improving mental health among ultra-poor children: Two-year outcomes of a cluster-randomized trial in Burkina Faso (2018)
Ismayilova, Karimli, Sanson, Gaveras, Nanemam, Tô-Camier, Chaffin, Social Science & Medicine 
DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.04.022

The parent trap: Cash transfers and the intergenerational transmission of depression in South Africa (2018)
K Eyal, J Burns, Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit

Efficacy of an Internet-based depression intervention to improve rates of treatment in adolescent mothers (2017)
M.C. Logsdon, J Myers, J Rushton, J.L. Gregg, A.M. Josephson, D Winders Davis, K Brothers, K Baisch, A Carabello, K Vogt, K Jones, J Angermeier, Archives of Women’s Mental Health
DOI: 10.1007/s00737-017-0804-z

Postpartum depression in adolescent mothers (2017)
K.J. Dinwiddie, T.L. Schillerstrom, J.E. Schillerstrom, Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology 
DOI: 10.1080/0167482X.2017.1334051

Child outcomes

Safety Nets, Maternal Mental Health, and Child Mental Health Outcomes among Mothers Living in Poverty (2021)
Radey, M., McWey, L.M., Journal of Child and Family Studies volume 30, pages687–698
DOI: 0.1007/s10826-021-01909-3

Course of perinatal depressive symptoms among South African women: associations with child outcomes at 18 and 36 months (2019)
E C Garman, A Cois, M Tomlinson, M J Rotheram‑Borus, C Lund

Substance using Mothers Experiencing Suicidal Thoughts: Impact of Parenting Behaviors on Child Behavior Problems (2018)
B Brakenhoff, Q Wu, N Slesnick, Journal of Child and Family Studies

Child abuse potential in mothers with early life maltreatment, borderline personality disorder and depression (2018)
K DittrichK BoedekerD Kluczniok
C Jaite, The British Journal of Psychiatry

Antenatal and postpartum depression: effects on infant and young child health and feeding practices (2017)
SS Madlala, SM Kassier, South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 31, Issue 1

The Lancet Series: Advancing Early Childhood Development 2016 Series | PDF  (summary)

Effects of perinatal mental disorders on the fetus and child (2014)
A Stein, R M Pearson, S H Goodman, E Rapa, A Rahman, M McCallum, L M Howard, C M Pariante, Lancet 384(9956):1800-19.
doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61277-0. Epub 2014 Nov 14

Maternal depression, anxiety and stress during pregnancy and child outcome; what needs to be done (2014) (Editorial)
V Glover, Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Volume 29, Issue 3 doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2013.08.017


Psychological interventions for maternal depression among women of African and Caribbean origin: a systematic review (2021)
Jidong, D.E., Husain, N., Roche, A. et al., BMC Women’s Health 21, 83
DOI: 10.1186/s12905-021-01202-x

Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions to Improve Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Outcomes: A WHO-CHOICE Analysis for Eastern Sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia (2021)
K Stenberg, R Watts, M Y Bertram, K Engesveen, B Maliqi, L Say, R Hutubessy, International Journal of Health Policy and Management
DOI: 10.34172/IJHPM.2021.07

Parenting Interventions and Secondary Outcomes Related to Maternal Mental Health: A Systematic Review (2021)
Waldrop, J., Baker, M., Salomon, R. et al., Matern Child Health J 25, 870–880

Diffusing and scaling evidence‐based interventions: eight lessons for early child development from the implementation of perinatal home visiting in South Africa (2018) 
M Tomlinson, X Hunt, M Rotheram-Borus, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13650 

Time for a new zeitgeist in perinatal mental health (2017)
F Judd, L Kathryn Newman, A A Komiti, Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry

Training and provider matters

A double-edged sword – telemedicine for maternal care during COVID-19: findings from a global mixed-methods study of healthcare providers
Galle A, Semaan A, Huysmans E, et al, BMJ Global Health 2021;6:e004575
DOI: 10.1136/bmjgh-2020-004575

The Secret History Project. : cultural adaptation of an experiential training method aiming at improved empathic engagement and self-care for midwives and nurses in obstetric care (2019)
E C Hänselmann, Dissertation
DOI: 10.6094/UNIFR/149372

Accessible continued professional development for maternal mental health (2019)
S Fiel, A Abrahams, D L Woods, R Turner, M N Onah, D K Kaura, S Honikman, African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine, 11(1), a1902 
DOI: https:// v11i1.1902

Effectiveness of an anti‑stigma training on improving attitudes and decreasing discrimination towards people with mental disorders among care assistant workers in Guangzhou, China, (2019)
J Li, Y Fan, H‑Q Zhong, X‑L Duan, W Chen, S Evans‑Lacko, G Thornicroft, International Journal of Mental Health Systems

Barriers to midwives and nurses addressing mental health issues with women during the perinatal period: The Mind Mothers study (2018)
A Higgins et al, Journal of Clinical Nursing, Volume27, Issue9-10 May 2018 Pages 1872-1883
DOI: 10.1111/jocn.14252

Reports and relevant documents

South Africa

World Health Organisation

Global reports

Resources developed together with our partners

  • Maternity Booklet; information, suggestions and support for mothers: Western Cape Department of Health • Download
  • Take Care; Self-care strategies for health workers: Western Cape Department of Health • Download
  • A Teen’s Guide to Pregnancy: Western Cape Department of Health • Download
  • Patient-Centred Maternity Care Code: Western Cape Department of Health • Download