For researchers

PMHP research

Accessible continued professional development for maternal mental health (2019)
S Fiel, A Abrahams, D L Woods, R Turner, M N Onah, D K Kaura, S Honikman, African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine, 11(1), a1902 
DOI: https:// doi.org/10.4102/phcfm. v11i1.1902
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Characteristics of perinatal depression in rural central, India: a cross‑sectional study (2018)
S. D. Rathod, S Honikman, C Hanlon, R Shidhaye, International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Doi.org/10.1186/s13033-018-0248-5
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Domestic and intimate partner violence among pregnant women in a low resource setting in South Africa: a facility-based, mixed methods study (2018)
S Field, M Onah, T v Heyningen, S Honikman, BMC Women’s Health DOI 10.1186/s12905-018-0612-2
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Intercultural Adaptation of the “Secret History” Training: From South Africa to Germany (2018)
E Hänselmann, C Knapp, M Wirsching, S Honikman, Global Health Collaboration, Chapter 4 DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-77685-9
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Adapting a perinatal empathic training method from South Africa to Germany From South Africa to Germany (2018)
C Knapp,  S Honikman, M Wirsching, G Husni-Pascha, E Hänselmann, Pilot and Feasibility Studies DOI 10.1186/s40814-018-0292-6
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Comparison of mental health screening tools for detecting antenatal depression and anxiety disorders in South African women (2018)
T v Heyningen, S Honikman, M Tomlinson, S Field, L Myer, PLoS ONE 13(4): e0193697, DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0193697
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Postpartum psychiatric disorders (2018)
S Meltzer-Brody, L M Howard, V Bergink, S Vigod, I Jones, T Munk-Olsen, S Honikman, J Milgrom, Nature Reviews Disease Primers DOI 10.1038/nrdp.2018.22
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Factors associated with household food insecurity and depression in pregnant South African women from a low socio-economic setting: a cross-sectional study (2018)
Z Abrahams, C Lund, S Field, S Honikman, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology DOI 10.1007/s00127-018-1497-y
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Prevalence and predictors of anxiety disorders amongst low-income pregnant women in urban South Africa: a cross-sectional study (2017)
T v Heyningen, S Honikman, L Myer, M N Onah, S Field, M Tomlinson, Archives of Women’s Mental Health, DOI 10.1007/s00737-017-0768-z
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Antenatal depressive symptoms and perinatal complications: a prospective study in rural Ethiopia (2017)
T Bitew, C Hanlon, E Kebede, S Honikman, A Fekuda, BMC Psychiatry (2017) 17:301, DOI 10.1186/s12888-017-1462-4
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‘First 1000 days’ health interventions in low- and middle-income countries: alignment of South African policies with high-quality evidence (2017)
R English, N Peer, S Honikman, A Tugendhaft, K J Hofman, Global Health Action, 10:1, 1340396, DOI: 10.1080/16549716.2017.1340396
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Antenatal depressive symptoms and utilisation of delivery and postnatal care: a prospective study in rural Ethiopia (2017)
T Bitew, C HanlonE Kebede, S Honikman, M N Onah, A Fekadu, BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth BMC series; DOI: 10.1186/s12884-017-1383-8
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Synthesising Global and Local Knowledge for the Development of Maternal Mental Health Care: Two Cases from South Africa (2017)
S Cooper, S Honikman, I Meintjes, M Tomlinson, The Palgrave Handbook of Sociocultural Perspectives on Global Mental Health, Chapter 23
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Perinatal suicidal ideation and behaviour: psychiatry and adversity (2016)
M N Onah, S Field, J Bantjes, S Honikman, Archives of Women’s Mental Health; DOI: 10.1007/s00737-016-0706-5
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Maternal mental health and the first 1 000 days (2016)
R E  Turner, S Honikman, South African Medical Journal;106(12):1164-1167. DOI:10.7196/SAMJ.2016.v106.i12.12129
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Perinatal mental health care in a rural African district, Uganda: a qualitative study of barriers, facilitators and needs (2016)
J E M Nakku, E S Okello, D Kizza, S Honikman, J Ssebunnya, S Ndyanabangi, C Hanlon, F Kigozi, BMC Health Service Research, DOI 10.1186/s12913-016-1547-7
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Antenatal depression and adversity in urban South Africa (2016)
T v Heyningen, L Myer, M N Onah, M Tomlinson, S FieldS Honikman, Journal of Affective Disorders, DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2016.05.052
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Predictors of alcohol and other drug use among pregnant women in a peri-urban South African setting (2016)
M N Onah, S FieldT v Heyningen, S Honikman, International Journal of Mental Health SystemsDOI: 10.1186/s13033-016-0070-x
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Integrating mental health into South Africa’ s health system : current status and way forward (2016)
M Schneider, E C Baron, E Breuer, SDocrat, S Honikman, A Kagee, M N Onah, S Skeen, K Sorsdahl, M Tomlinson, C vd Westhuizen, C Lund, South African Health Review, 2016, Chapter 13, Durban: Health Systems Trust
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Breastfeeding in South Africa : are we making progress? (2016)
Lisanne du Plessis, Nazia Peer, Simone Honikman, René English, South African Health Review, 2016, Chapter 10, Durban: Health Systems Trust
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Maternal mental health in primary care in five low- and middle-income countries: a situational analysis (2016)
E C Baron, C Hanlon, S Mall, S Honikman, E Breuer1, T Kathree, N P Luitel, J Nakku, C Lund, G Medhin, V Patel, I Petersen, S Shrivastava, M Tomlinson, Health Services Research, 2016, DOI 10.1186/s12913-016-1291-z
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District mental healthcare plans for five low-and middle-income countries: commonalities, variations and evidence gaps (2015)
C Hanlon, A Fekadu, M Jordans, F Kigozi, I Petersen, R Shidhaye, S Honikman, C Lund, M Prince, S Raja, G Thornicroft, M Tomlinson, V Patel, British Journal of Psychiatry, 2015 Oct 7. pii: bjp.bp.114.153767.
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Generating evidence to narrow the treatment gap for mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa: Rationale, Overview and Methods of AFFIRM (2015)
C Lund, A Alem, M Schneider, C Hanlon, J Ahrens, C  Bandawe, J Bass, A Bhana, J Burns, D Chibanda, F Cowan, T Davies, M Dewey, A Fekadu, M Freeman, S Honikman, J Joska, A Kagee, R Mayston, G Medhin, S Musisi, L Myer, T Ntulo, M Nyatsanza, A Ofori-Atta, I Petersen, S Phakathi, M Prince, T Shibre, D.J.  Stein, L Swartz, G Thornicroft, M Tomlinson, L Wissow, E Susser, Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences. April 2015 DOI:10.1017/S2045796015000281
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Creating capabilities through maternal mental health Interventions: a case study at Hanover Park, Cape Town (2015)
I Meintjes, S Field, T Van Heyningen, S Honikman, Journal of International Development, 27, 234250 DOI: 10.1002/jid.3063
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Abuse in South African maternity settings is a disgrace: Potential solutions to the problem (Editorial) (2015)
S Honikman, S Fawcus, I Meintjes, The South African Medical Journal, April, Vol. 105, No. 4, 284 – 286.
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Patterns of use of a maternal mental health service in a low-resource antenatal setting in South Africa (2014)
E Baron, S Field, Z Kafaar, S Honikman, Health and Social Care in the Community Journal doi: 10.1111/hsc.12167.
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The impact of antenatal mental distress on funtioning and capabilities: views of health care providers and service user in Cape Town, South Africa (2014)
S Mall, S Honikman, B Evans, L Swartz, and C Lund, Informa Healthcare Disability and Rehabilitation: Vol. 36, No. 13, 1092-1099, doi:10.3109/09638288.2013.833300.
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Maternal mental health care: refining the components in a South African setting in Global Mental Health (2014)
S Field, E Baron, I Meintjes, T van Heyningen, S Honikman, in Essentials of Global Mental Health, Cambridge University Press, 173-186.
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Screening and pathways to maternal mental health care in a South African antenatal setting (2013)
B Vythilingum, S Field, Z Kafaar, E Baron, DJ Stein, S Honikman, Archives of Women’s Mental Health, April, 1-9. doi: 10.1007/s00737-013-0343-1.
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Stepped Care for Maternal Mental Health: A Case Study of the Perinatal Mental Health Project in South Africa (2012)
S Honikman, T van Heyningen, S Field, E Baron, M Tomlinson, PLoS Medicine, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001222.
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Improving child outcomes through maternal mental health interventions (2010)
I Meintjes; S Field, L Sanders, T Van Heyningen, S Honikman, Journal of Child & Adolescent Mental Health, Vol. 22, No. 2, 73 – 82.
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The Perinatal Mental Health Project (2004)
S Honikman, H Rosenthal, S Faure, B Wirz, S van Zijl, M Littlejohn, N Bergman, S Fawcus, Mental Health Promotion: Case Studies from Countries, WHO/WFMH, (Eds. S Saxena & PJ Garrison), 84.
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Maternal Mental Health: South Africa & Low and Middle-Income Countries

Pregnant women’s mental health literacy and perceptions of perinatal mental disorders in the Western Cape, South Africa (2018)
M F Spedding, D J Stein, T Naledi, K Sorsdahl, Mental Health & Prevention, Volume 11   
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Psychological Treatments for the World: Lessons from Low- and Middle-Income Countries (2017) 
D R Singla, B A Kohrt, L K Murray, A Anand, B F Chorpita, V Patel, Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 13:1, 149-181  
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Maternal depression and mental health in early childhood: an examination of underlying mechanisms in low-income and middle-income countries (2016)
C M Herba, V Glover, P G Ramchandani, M B Rondon, Lancet Psychiatry, 2016; Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2016, Pages 983-992, https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30148-1
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Epidemiology of maternal depression, risk factors, and child outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries (2016)
B Gelaye, MB Rondon, R Araya, MA Williams, Lancet Psychiatry, 2016 Oct; 3(10):973-982. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30284-X. Epub 2016 Sep 17
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Prevalence and determinants of common perinatal mental disorders in women in low- and lower-middle-income countries: a systematic review (2012)
J Fisher, M Mello, V Patel, A Rahman, T Tran, S Holton, W Holmes, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol 90, No 2, doi: 10.1590/S0042-96862012000200014
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PRIME: A Programme to Reduce the Treatment Gap for Mental Disorders in Five Low- and Middle-Income Countries (2012) 
C Lund, M Tomlinson, M De Silva, A Fekadu, R Shidhaye, M Jordans, I Petersen, A Bhana, F Kigozi, M Prince, G Thornicroft, C Hanlon, R Kakuma, D McDaid, S Saxena, D Chisholm, S Raja, S Kippen-Wood, S Honikman, L Fairall, V Patel, PLoS Med. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001359
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The prevalence and clinical presentation of antenatal depression in rural South Africa (2011)
T. J Rochat, M Tomlinson, T Bärnighausen, M-L Newell, A Stein, Journal of Affective Disorders, doi:10.1016/j.jad.2011.08.011
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Depressed mood in pregnancy: Prevalence and correlates in two Cape Town peri-urban settlements (2011)
M Hartley, M Tomlinson, E Greco, W S Comulada, J Stewart, I le Roux, N Mbewu, et al. Reproductive Health, doi:10.1186/1742-4755-8-9
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The South African Stress and Health (SASH) study: A scientific base for mental health policy (2009)
DJ Stein, DR Williams, RC Kessler, South African Medical Journal, 99(5), 337-337
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The South African Stress and Health (SASH) study: 12-month and lifetime prevalence of common mental disorders (2009)
A A Herman, D J Stein, S Seedat, S G Heeringa, H Moomal, D R Williams, SAMJ: South African Medical Journal. Vol 99, No 5, 339-344
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The epidemiology of major depression in South Africa: results from the South African stress and health study (2009)
M Tomlinson, A Grimsrud, DJ Stein, D Williams, L Myer, South African Medical Journal, 99(5), 368-373
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Life stress and mental disorders in the South African Stress and Health study (2009)
S Seedat, DJ Stein, PB Jackson, S Heeringa, D Williams, L Myer, South African Medical Journal. 99(5): 375-382
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General (maternal) mental health research

Childcare Instability and Maternal Depressive Symptoms: Exploring New Avenues for Supporting Maternal Mental Health (2018)
D. Johnson C. M.Padilla, Academic Pediatrics Volume 19, Issue 1, January–February 2019, Pages 18-26
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2018.05.006
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The Lancet Commission on Global Mental Health and Sustainable Development
Journal article | The Commission

The Lancet Series on Women’s Mental Health
2017 Series

The Lancet Series on Maternal Health
2016 Series

The Lancet Series on Perinatal Mental Health
2014 Series

Grand Challenges: Integrating Maternal Mental Health into Maternal and Child Health Programmes (2013)
A Rahman, PJ Surkan, CE Cayetano, P Rwagatare, KE Dickson, PLoS Med. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001442
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The Lancet Series on Global Mental Health
2011 Series 2

The Lancet Series on Global Mental Health
2007 Series 1

Prevalence studies

  • Anxiety

Prevalence and determinants of common perinatal mental disorders in women in low and lower middle income countries: a systematic review of the evidence (2012) 
J Fisher, M Cabral de Mello, V Patel, A Rahman, T Tran, S Holton, W Holmes, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Feb 2012, Vol. 90 Issue 2, p139.
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The prevalence of antenatal and postnatal co-morbid anxiety and depression: a meta-analysis (2017)
K Falah-Hassani, R Shiri, C L Dennis, Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291717000617
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  • Depression

A systematic review and meta-regression of the prevalence and incidence of perinatal depression (2017)
A. Woody, A. J. Ferrari, D. J. Siskind et al, Journal of Affective Disorders
doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.05.003.
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Antenatal depression and its risk factors: An urban prevalence study in KwaZulu-Natal (2012) 
L Manikkam, J K Burns, South African Medical Journal Oct 10;102(12):940-4. doi: 10.7196/samj.6009.
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The prevalence and clinical presentation of antenatal depression in rural South Africa (2011) 
T Jean Rochat, M Tomlinson, T Bärnighausen, M LNewell, A Stein, Journal of Affective Disorders, Dec;135(1-3):362-73. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.08.011. Epub 2011 Aug 31.
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Depressed mood in pregnancy: Prevalence and correlates in two Cape Town peri-urban settlements (2011) M Hartley, M Tomlinson, E Greco,W S Comulada, J Stewart, I le Roux, N Mbewu, M J Rotheram-Borus, Reproductive Health, 8:9,DOI: 10.1186/1742-4755-8-9. Weblink

Post-partum depression and infant growth in a South African peri-urban settlement (2006) M Tomlinson, P J Cooper, A Stein, L Swartz, C Molteno, Child: Care, Health & Development, Jan;32(1):81-6. Weblink

  • Suicidality

Substance using Mothers Experiencing Suicidal Thoughts: Impact of Parenting Behaviors on Child Behavior Problems (2018)
B Brakenhoff, Q Wu, N Slesnick, Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0897-z
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Detection and screening

Perinatal mental health and psychosocial risk screening in a community maternal and child health setting: evaluation of a digital platform (2018)
N Highet, J Gamble, D Creedy, Journal of Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://doi.org/10.1017/S1463423618000336
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Neonatal Outcomes in Women With Untreated Antenatal Depression Compared With Women Without Depression (2016) 
A Jarde, M Morais, D Kingston, R Giallo, G. M. MacQueen, L Giglia, J Beyene, Y Wang, S D. McDonald JAMA Psychiatry 2016;73(8):826-837. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.0934
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Primary Care Screening for and Treatment of Depression in Pregnant and Postpartum Women (2016) 
E O’Connor, R. C. Rossom, M Henninger, H. C. Groom, B. U. Burda JAMA. 2016;315(4):388-406. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.18948
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To screen or not to screen-that is the question in perinatal depression (2002)
A Buist, B Barnett, J Milgrom, S Pope, J Condon, D Ellwood, P Boyce, et al, The Medical Journal of Australia. 177 Suppl (October): S101–5
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Risk Factors for maternal mental health problems

  • Food insecurity 

The Impact of Food Insecurity on the Home Emotional Environment Among Low-Income Mothers of Young Children (2018)
M Gill, M Koleilat, S. E. Whaley, Maternal and Child Health Journal, 22: 1146., doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-018-2499-9
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Cumulative risk and resilience: The roles of comorbid maternal mental health conditions and community cohesion in influencing food security in low-income households (2017)
M Lombe, L. Y. Saltzman, Y Chu, A Sinha, V E Nebbitt, Social Work in Mental Health Journal, doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/15332985.2017.1344756
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  • Gender-based violence and intimate partner violence

Psychological and physical intimate partner violence and young children’s mental health: The role of maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms and parenting behaviors. (2018)
C A Greene, G Chan, KJ McCarthy, LS Wakschlag, MJ Briggs-Gowan, J Child Abuse Negl.
doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.01.012.
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Violence against women and mental health (2016) 
S Oram, H Khalifeh, L M Howard The Lancet Psychiatry doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30261-9
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The Lancet Series on Violence against women and girls
2014 Series

  • Refugees and civil conflict 

Maternal mental health priorities, help-seeking behaviors, and resources in post-conflict settings: a qualitative study in eastern Uganda (2018)
W A Tol, B Ebrecht, R Aiyo, S M Murray, A J Nguyen, B A Kohrt, S Ndyanabangi, S Alderman, S Musisi, J Nakku, BMC Psychiatry
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1626-x
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  • HIV/ AIDS

Postpartum maternal mental health is associated with cognitive development of HIV-exposed infants in Zimbabwe: a cross-sectional study (2018)
H Mebrahtu, V Simms, R Chingono, Z Mupambireyi, H. A. Weiss, P Ndlovu, R Malaba, F. M. Cowan, L Sherr, Journal AIDS Care Volume 30
https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2018.1468015
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  • Poverty 

Material Hardship and Mental Health Symptoms Among a Predominantly Low Income Sample of Pregnant Women Seeking Prenatal Care (2018)
J Katz, H.F. Crean, C Cerulli et al., Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-018-2518-x
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  • Social support

Social support and maternal mental health at 4 months and 1 year postpartum: analysis from the All Our Families cohort (2018) E Hetherington, S McDonald, T Williamson, S B Patten, S C Tough, Journal of Epidemiol Community Health 2018;72:933-939. 
DOI: 10.1136/jech-2017-210274
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Maternal adverse childhood experiences and antepartum risks: the moderating role of social support (2018)
N Racine, S Madigan, A Plamondon, E Hetherington, S McDonald, S Tough, Archives of Women’s Mental Health 
DOI.https://doi.org/10.1007/s00737-018-0826-1
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  • Substance and alcohol abuse

Substance using Mothers Experiencing Suicidal Thoughts: Impact of Parenting Behaviors on Child Behavior Problems (2018)
B Brakenhoff, Q Wu, N Slesnick, Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0897-z
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Adolescence

Promotion of Mental Health among Perinatal Mexican-American Adolescents through Health Literacy (2018)
P Recto, J Dimmitt-Champion, Journal of Adolescent Health
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.11.121
Website

Improving mental health among ultra-poor children: Two-year outcomes of a cluster-randomized trial in Burkina Faso (2018)
Ismayilova, Karimli, Sanson, Gaveras, Nanemam, Tô-Camier, Chaffin, Social Science & Medicine 
doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.04.022
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The parent trap: Cash transfers and the intergenerational transmission of depression in South Africa (2018)
K Eyal, J Burns, Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit
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Efficacy of an Internet-based depression intervention to improve rates of treatment in adolescent mothers (2017)
M.C. Logsdon, J Myers, J Rushton, J.L. Gregg, A.M. Josephson, D Winders Davis, K Brothers, K Baisch, A Carabello, K Vogt, K Jones, J Angermeier, Archives of Women’s Mental Health
doi.org/10.1007/s00737-017-0804-z
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Postpartum depression in adolescent mothers (2017)
K.J. Dinwiddie, T.L. Schillerstrom, J.E. Schillerstrom, Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology 
doi.10.1080/0167482X.2017.1334051
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Child outcomes

Substance using Mothers Experiencing Suicidal Thoughts: Impact of Parenting Behaviors on Child Behavior Problems (2018)
B Brakenhoff, Q Wu, N Slesnick, Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0897-z
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Child abuse potential in mothers with early life maltreatment, borderline personality disorder and depression (2018)
K DittrichK BoedekerD Kluczniok
C Jaite, The British Journal of Psychiatry
https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2018.74
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Antenatal and postpartum depression: effects on infant and young child health and feeding practices (2017)
SS Madlala, SM Kassier, South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 31, Issue 1
doi.org/10.1080/16070658.2017.1333753
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The Lancet Series: Advancing Early Childhood Development 2016 Series | PDF  (summary)

Effects of perinatal mental disorders on the fetus and child (2014)
A Stein, R M Pearson, S H Goodman, E Rapa, A Rahman, M McCallum, L M Howard, C M Pariante, Lancet 384(9956):1800-19.
doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61277-0. Epub 2014 Nov 14
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Maternal depression, anxiety and stress during pregnancy and child outcome; what needs to be done (2014) (Editorial)
V Glover, Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Volume 29, Issue 3 doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2013.08.017
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Interventions

Diffusing and scaling evidence‐based interventions: eight lessons for early child development from the implementation of perinatal home visiting in South Africa (2018) 
M Tomlinson, X Hunt, M Rotheram-Borus, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.13650 
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Time for a new zeitgeist in perinatal mental health (2017)
F Judd, L Kathryn Newman, A A Komiti, Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867417741553
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Training and provider matters

Accessible continued professional development for maternal mental health (2019)
S Fiel, A Abrahams, D L Woods, R Turner, M N Onah, D K Kaura, S Honikman, African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine, 11(1), a1902 
DOI: https:// doi.org/10.4102/phcfm. v11i1.1902
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Effectiveness of an anti‑stigma training on improving attitudes and decreasing discrimination towards people with mental disorders among care assistant workers in Guangzhou, China, (2019)
J Li, Y Fan, H‑Q Zhong, X‑L Duan, W Chen, S Evans‑Lacko, G Thornicroft, International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13033-018-0259-2
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Reports and relevant documents

South Africa

World Health Organisation

Resources developed together with our partners

  • Maternity Booklet; information, suggestions and support for mothers: Western Cape Department of Health • Download
  • Take Care; Self-care strategies for health workers: Western Cape Department of Health • Download
  • A Teen’s Guide to Pregnancy: Western Cape Department of Health • Download
  • Patient-Centred Maternity Care Code: Western Cape Department of Health • Download